|An arbitrary high-order Discontinuous Galerkin method for elastic waves on unstructured meshes - III. Viscoelastic attenuation
|Year of Publication
|Käser M, Dumbser M, de la Puente J, Igel H
|Geophysical Journal International
|Attenuation, Discontinuous Galerkin, High order accuracy, Relaxation, Unstructured meshes, Viscoelasticity
|We present a new numerical method to solve the heterogeneous anelastic, seismic wave equations with arbitrary high order accuracy in space and time on 3-D unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Using the velocity-stress formulation provides a linear hyperbolic system of equations with source terms that is completed by additional equations for the anelastic functions including the strain history of the material. These additional equations result from the rheological model of the generalized Maxwell body and permit the incorporation of realistic attenuation properties of viscoelastic material accounting for the behaviour of elastic solids and viscous fluids. The proposed method combines the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element (FE) method with the ADER approach using Arbitrary high order DERivatives for flux calculations. The DG approach, in contrast to classical FE methods, uses a piecewise polynomial approximation of the numerical solution which allows for discontinuities at element interfaces. Therefore, the well-established theory of numerical fluxes across element interfaces obtained by the solution of Riemann problems can be applied as in the finite volume framework. The main idea of the ADER time integration approach is a Taylor expansion in time in which all time derivatives are replaced by space derivatives using the so-called Cauchy-Kovalewski procedure which makes extensive use of the governing PDE. Due to the ADER time integration technique the same approximation order in space and time is achieved automatically and the method is a one-step scheme advancing the solution for one time step without intermediate stages. To this end, we introduce a new unrolled recursive algorithm for efficiently computing the Cauchy-Kovalewski procedure by making use of the sparsity of the system matrices. The numerical convergence analysis demonstrates that the new schemes provide very high order accuracy even on unstructured tetrahedral meshes while computational cost and storage space for a desired accuracy can be reduced when applying higher degree approximation polynomials. In addition, we investigate the increase in computing time, when the number of relaxation mechanisms due to the generalized Maxwell body are increased. An application to a well-acknowledged test case and comparisons with analytic and reference solutions, obtained by different well-established numerical methods, confirm the performance of the proposed method. Therefore, the development of the highly accurate ADER-DG approach for tetrahedral meshes including viscoelastic material provides a novel, flexible and efficient numerical technique to approach 3-D wave propagation problems including realistic attenuation and complex geometry. © 2006 The Authors Journal compilation © 2006 RAS.